ABI command
A command interpreted and executed by the microcode (audio microcode) for waveform synthesis. It is used to create waveform synthesis drivers.

acoustic instrument

adaptable clustering algorithm
One of the design methods for code books used by ADPCM. --> ADPCM, ADPCM encoder, tabledesign

The abbreviation of "Adaptive Pulse Code Modulation". A method of compressing sampling data which encodes the value difference between the actual sampling value and the anticipated next sampling value derived from the past sampling value. This method will enable the amount of data compressed to the quarter of the size.

ADPCM compression
To converts AIFF file into AIFC file. --> ADPCM encoder

ADPCM decoder
A tool that converts a AIFC file into a AIFF file. --> vadpcm_dec

ADPCM decoder state information
Internal status of the ADPCM decoder.--> vadpcm_dec

ADPCM decompressor
One of the sound processing modules which converts a monaural ADPCM compression (approximately 4:1) wave table to a monaural 16-bit straight format. One of the elements that comprise a physical voice. --> physical voice

ADPCM encoder
A tool that converts a AIFF file into a AIFC file. --> vadpcm_enc

ADPCM format
A file format(AIFC file) to save data in ADPCM format. --> AIFC, vadpcm_enc, vadpcm_dec

Indicating Attack time, Decay time, Sustain level, and Release time, this is one of the envelope structures.

ADSR envelope
--> ADSR

AIFC adds information about the correlation to compression CODEC to the basic AIFF.

A format of sound data.

--> AIFC

API call
To call API. --> API


--> ADSR

attack time
--> ADSR

audio bank tool

audio command list
Created by the synthesizer driver. The application will create a task based on the audio command list, and then hand the task which has been created overt to the audio synthesizer microcode.

audio DAC
D/A converter for audio use that converts digital audio data(PCM) into analog wave form.

audio DMA
DMA for audio use.

audio DMA buffer
DMA buffer for audio use.

audio heap
Area used for each function in audio library to dynamically allocate memory. Needs to be initialized before you use audio library.

audio information

audio task list
Task list for audio.

audio synthesizer microcode
A microcode which processes tasks received from the application and synthesizes L/R stereo 16-bit sample data.

audio thread stack size
Stack size of audio thread.

--> bank structure

bank file
A bank files is defined as a file which collectively contains a .tbl file in which ADPCM-compressed wave table data are stored, a .ctl file in which control data, such as key map, envelope, gain, etc. for a wave table are stored, and a .sym file in which symbol data for the bank file are stored. --> instrument compiler(ic)

bank structure
Sounds with a hierarchical structure like that shown below comprise elements consisting of the envelope, the key map, and the wave table, several sounds combine to comprise an instrument, and several instruments combine to comprise a bank.

bend range

BGM event
One of the MIDI events. For details, see "Standard MIDI Files 1.0," jointly issued with the MIDI Manufacturers Association.

big room
An effect to make sound as if the sound were made in a big room.


--> DMA call back

callback function

callback routine
--> callback function

1/100 of a semi-tone. One octave is 1200 cents.

channel parameter

channel priority

Adds fullness to a note by mixing delayed notes with a single note to create the effect of a chorus of voices.

chorus depth
A parameter for effect. Modulation amplitude where delay line output occurs. --> Programming manual 17.4

chorus/flange format
The chorus effect and flange effect produced by combining sounds. --> Chorus, Flange

chorus rate
A parameter for effect. Modulation frequency where delay line output occurs. --> Programming manual 17.4

In the case of AIFF data, for example, in addition to "sample data," "loop data," "channel data," "creator data," "tool resume data," etc. are included in the file, each existing as an independent block. These various blocks are referred to as "chunks." 4 bytes of ID and 4 bytes of chunk size data are always at the head of each chunk, and the application refers to these so that it can extract only the information that it needs from the file.

click sound

click noise
A noise. --> click

client list
A list of players registered in synthesize driver. --> synthesize driver

clock tick unit
--> tick

code book
List of predictive coefficients used to optimize sound quality when doing ADPCM compression. --> ADPCM, predictive coefficient

code book chunk

code book data array

comb effect
--> comb filter

comb filter
One type of effect.

command list
--> audio command list

command list buffer
Buffer to save ABI commands that would be executed every audio frame.

compressed MIDI
A N64-specific MIDI format which compresses the standard MIDI format. Played back using the compact sequence player.

compressed MIDI sequence
A compressed MIDI sequence. compressed MIDI, sequence

compact sequence format
--> AIFC

compact sequence player
-->sequence player


control data

control information

DC normalization
The abbreviation of "Discrete Cosine normalize". By doing the orthogonal transform (discrete cosine transformation) of input signals, this process splits the signal into the direct current and alternating current components and takes out the direct current component. You can do the discrete cosine transformation and reverse-transformation in real-time by using DSP.

decay time
--> ADSR

delay line
A mechanism that is used to perform sound effects such as sound frequency modulation and amplitude modulation to realize echo and flange sound effect.

delay memory

delay time
See decay time. --> decay time

delta time
A period of time between two events represented in tick units.

To slightly shift the sound frequency.

DMA call back
It uses DMA to transfer the waveform data from ROM to RAM as necessary. By using this method, you avoid keeping unnecessary data in RAM, so the amount of RAM required for audio is reduced

driver configuration structure
The structure used when initializing the synthesizer driver. The upper limits for the number of voices and the number of events are written here, and when the structure's pointer is handed over to the driver by allnit, the driver performs the internal settings while reading these values. This is so that these values will be registered without writing all of the arguments out for allnit.

A sound effect that ranges from 0 (a completely dry sound) to 127 (a completely wet sound).

A phenomenon or the sound where the sound traveling from a voice source reflects against walls and produces a sound delayed from the sound that reaches directly.

echo effect
--> echo

Processes an encoded sound to create a sound which is different from the original sound. Examples are vibrato, tremolo, and echo, etc.

effect bus

effect mix
Specify the wet/dry mix. --> wet

effect primitive

effect unit

end of track event
One of the MIDI meta-events. Generated when all of the notes in a track have been played over their respective continuous periods.

The information that defines a volume which changes as time proceeds. The n64 audio library uses the ADSR envelope.

envelope asset
Assets pertaining to an envelope. --> envelope, asset

envelope object
An envelope of ADSR --> ADSR, envelope

envelope parameter
An envelope of ADSR that is defined in ALSound structure. --> ADSR, envelope

Defined sound change that occurs as time progresses: note on, note off, and control change.

event list
A list of event. --> event

external MIDI device

fade out
Gradually decreasing the sound.

A parameter for effect: feedback coefficient. --> Programming manual 17.4

A parameter for effect: feed forward coefficient. --> Programming manual 17.4

An sound effect where a copy of the original sound is slightly delayed and then added to the original sound to exaggerate the frequency component.

Information on types of effect used such as none, small room, big room, echo, flange, chorus, and custom.

A parameter for effect: Output gain from effect bus. --> Programming manual 17.4

gain information
--> gain

gain unit
Unit which applies the volume envelope and pan value and mixes output and sends it to the master bus and the effect bus at the gain specified by the wet/dry parameter for the voice. --> physical voice

gain value
Expresses the ratio of the change in the output signal relative to the change in the input signal in dB.

Gardner format
One of the methods of notating an effect. --> effect

General MIDI 1.0 specification
The most general of the MIDI file formats. There are two formats: Type 0 and Type 1. For details, see "Standard MIDI Files 1.0," jointly issued with the MIDI Manufacturers' Association.

General MIDI bank
Bank for replaying General MIDI on the N64. Included in the development software, it can be used freely by the licensee.

half step
Half note.

A musical instrument. In N64 audio library, this refers to the complete package of audio attributes including the sound, envelope, key map or pan. and so on.

instrument asset
An asset for the instrument. Parameters such as volume, pan and bend range can be specified. --> instrument, asset

instrument bank

instrument chunk

instrument compiler
--> instrument compiler(ic)

instrument compiler(ic)
A tool that generates bank files (waveform data files .tbl and control files .ctl) out of some compressed AIFC sound data.

instrument object
An object that is used to specify the entire volume and pan for the instrument and a list of sound that consists the instrument.

key base
Defines the MIDI note number which corresponds with the sound played back at a reference pitch. Without preparing sounds for all of the keys, a pitch shift is performed from the difference between the specific key and the key base to produce the sound of the specified key.

--> key base

key off
Note off. --> note on/note off

key map
Defines to which voice range and which velocity a target sound corresponds. By combining this kind of data with a sound, the appropriate sound is selected according to the scale and the velocity.

key map entry
For more about keymap. --> keymap

key map object
An object that specifies the number of keys that MIDI velocity and the sound would cover.

key mapping
To key map --> key map

key map structure
A structure that contains the information about velocity, key range, key base, and detune.

key number
--> note number

A parameter for effect that specifies the length of delay memory effect uses. The value must be a multiple of 8 bytes.

An oscillator that generates audio frequency wave. --> oscillator

loop end sub-type
Data expressing the end of a loop in compressed MIDI. --> compressed MIDI, metastatus byte

low frequency oscillator- LFO
--> LFO

low-pass filter
One type of filter. Cuts the high-frequency component of a signal while allowing the low-frequency component to pass.

lpfilt coef
One of the effect parameters. Coefficient for the single-pole low-pass filter

magnitude value

mapping method
A method of mapping sound to key maps. --> key map, key base, velocity

--> sequence position marker

memory demand
The amount of memory required.

meta event
Midi doesn't include this event, but you can define it. It has tempo or end-of-track information.

meta status
--> meta status byte

meta status byte
Data which identifies something as a meta-event. The head of a meta-event always starts from 0xFF.compressed MIDI

middle C
he center C4 (MIDI note number 60).

A standard protocol for the interchange of musical information such as sound volume and length between synthesizers, sequencers, and computers.

MIDI channel

MIDI channel

MIDI clock

MIDI clock tick count

MIDI clock time
A timing used to control MIDI equipment.

MIDI controller
One of the MIDI messages. Message to specify an effect for a specific note. For details, see "Standard MIDI Files 1.0," jointly issued with the MIDI Manufacturers' Association.

MIDI daemon
A tool used to perform MIDI data real time in N64.

MIDI event

MIDI message

MIDI note number
One of the MIDI messages. Message to specify the height of a specific note. For details, see "Standard MIDI Files 1.0," jointly issued with the MIDI Manufacturers' Association.

MIDI Note Off message
One of the MIDI messages. Message to stop a specific note. For details, see "Standard MIDI Files 1.0," jointly issued with the MIDI Manufacturers' Association.

MIDI Note On message
One of the MIDI messages. Message to play a specific note. For details, see "Standard MIDI Files 1.0," jointly issued with the MIDI Manufacturers' Association.

MIDI playback
Performs processing, such as reading and playing (standard) MIDI data with the processor. Refers to playback and sequence.

MIDI sequence
Sequential messages for MIDI. --> sequence

MIDI sequencer
A sequencer that performs input/output of MIDI files. --> sequencer

To mix several independent notes.

modulation depth
The degree of the modulation rate pitch change. --> modulation rate

modulation rate
The delay time from the input sound.

musical chorusing
--> chorus

N64 device driver
A device driver that connects IRIX with N64 emulator board. /dev/n64.

To nest smaller block of data into bigger block of data.

note number
Numbers to represent musical scale that goes from 1 to 128 with 60 being the midpoint.

note on/note off
MIDI commands used to start sound(note on) and stop sound(note off). Usually they must be paired for use.

note on velocity
--> velocity

The value added to or subtracted from a certain reference value.

offset array

Refers to the oscillator.

output buffer

output gain
--> gain

output rate
--> playback rate

The orientation information of the sound. It indicates where the sound is coming from (right to left).

pan controller
In the MIDI standard, this refers to the mechanism, or its control number, that changes the stereo pan pot of a sound. The control number for the pan is 10.

pan information
--> pan

pan location
--> pan

percussion instrument

physical voice
The voice that actually provides the wave form synthesis. It corresponds to the sound process module that consists of the ADPCM decompressor, the pitch shifter, and the gain unit. --> virtual voice

This refers to the height (vocal range) of a sound according to its frequency. Physically speaking, it refers to the frequency.

pitch bend
To make the pitch continually go up and down to produce an effect similar to the choking effect of a guitar.

pitch bend change
A message for MIDI. --> pitch bend, MIDI message

pitch shifter
A unit which re-samples the ADPCM output data and converts it to a desired pitch. --> physical voice

playback rate
The number of samples per second produced by the synthesizer.

playback volume
The volume during playback. --> volume.

polyphonic key pressure
Information that provides an individual sound effect for a specific note when several notes are played at the same time.

pop noise
One type of noise. A "pop" sound.

predictive coefficient
With ADPCM compression, you estimate the current sampling value from the past sampling value and encode the difference between its estimated value and the actual value.  This predictive coefficient is then used to search to search for the estimated value.

File names followed by extensions such as '.ctl', '.tbl', and '.sym' when compiling with ic.

primitive functions

program control change

program number
The number in the MIDI sequence that identifies each instrument. This number is used for program change in MIDI sequence.

real time editing
One method of input to the sequencer. An instrument is actually played and its signal is input.

redundancy mode
The mode in which debug data are displayed, such as whether to always perform operation. Set as an option when running ic or the MIDI Demon. Single pole (one pole).

--> ADSR

release time
--> ADSR

release volume
--> ADSR

To resample by shifting the pitch. It is used to convert the ADPCM output data to an arbitrary pitch. It is also called the pitch shift process.

reverb format
Reverb effect that is created by reflecting sound.

root pitch
The pitch of the note that forms the foundation of a chord.

sample bank file
--> bank file

sample data
Each single sample data.--> sampling

sample offset

sample rate specification

To extract the signal size from the continuous analog signals at each suitable time interval.

sampling rate
The number of sampels per second. The higher the sampling rate, the better the quality of the sound would be, but the more memory would be required.

Tool for creating a sequence bank file from several sequence files.

semi tone
A half tone.

Data lined in certain order.

sequence bank compiler - sbc
--> sbc

sequence buffer
Buffer used to hold sequence used during game play.

sequence marker

sequence player
The sequence player has two types, the MIDI sequence file player of Type 0 and the compressed MIDI sequence player. These players have the same functions except for the compression format and the loop process. While the MIDI sequence player of Type 0 can provide the loop process from outside, the compressed MIDI sequence player must have the loop point embedded in the sequence.

sequence position marker
A marker used to mark at a given position in the Type0 sequence data and set such information as playback time and a loop point.

sequence volume

A software or mechanism used to sequentially control continuous data.

sequencer event buffer
When a note is turned ON/OFF in the sequencer, or the volume, pitch, FXMIX, etc. are changed, or when a parameter has been changed by an external function (alSeqp...), it is stored in the event buffer as an "event" in order to convey the result thereof to the synthesizer driver in the form of a command. The voice handler subsequently reads the event buffer and converts it into a synthesizer driver command (alSyn...). This is so that such events are not converted to synthesizer commands one-at-a-time until there is a parameter that does not change. It could also be said to be a program which recognizes the command cache.

single pole
Primary (one pole).

small room
An effect to make sound as if the sound were made in a small room.


sound asset
Assett pertaining to a sound. Referred to by the instrument asset. --> sound, asset

sound bank

sound effect
Effects and music which are added to heighten the atmosphere associated with the game's video, etc.

sound loop structure

sound object
Expressed by the ALSound structure.

sound player
A player to play single sound effect and streaming audio. Sound in ADPCM compressed and 16-bit decompressed formats can be played.

sound structure

standard drum kit
Generally indicates a group of drum voices which complies with the standard MIDI format. Drum voices which are used often commonly are made into sets.

standard MIDI
--> General MIDI 1.0 specification

standard MIDI file
--> General MIDI 1.0 specification

standard MIDI file 1.0 specification
--> General MIDI 1.0 specification

stereo pan
--> pan

To make a constant amount of sound data flow all the time in the real-time process.

subtype byte
The byte that stores the information that defines types of MIDI event.

--> ADSR

sustain level
--> ADSR

switchable ADPCM algorithm
One type of ADPCM algorithm. --> ADPCM

To synthesize wave forms.

synthesize driver
A driver to synthesize wave forms.

synthesizer update buffer

synthesizer voice

Additional information to recognize data.

tap value
Coefficients(gain) for each effect that is output ,and it is output from delay line.

tempo event
An event to change tempo in compressed MIDI. --> meta event

Unit of time related to the MIDI clock at a resolution specified in the MIDI sequencer header.

total delay length
--> length

A process that applies low frequency modulation to the sound quantity to make it alternate between large and small.

To adjust playback rate so that it's played at desired pitch. --> resample

Type0, Type1 MIDI
MIDI sequence formats, wherein Type 1 MIDI files are used by general MIDI sequencers. Since the sequence data which can be handled by the N64 audio library are Type 0 MIDI files, data must be converted to a Type 0 MIDI file using midicvt.

type information

unit pitch
The original pitch of a sound used in the key map. pitch

The rate to strike the keyboards. Usually, this information indicates the sound level.

velocity value
--> velocity

velocity zone
The corresponding velocity range in a key map --> key map

It makes the sound frequency (pitch) go up and down by the low frequency modulation.

virtual voice
Expressed by the ALVoice structure for ease of use by the player. To play a sound, a player's virtual voice must be allocated to the sound. Virtual voices with higher priority are allocated to the physical voice. -> physical voice


voice handler functions
The program which provides the parameters and/or commands for a "voice" (sound generating channel) within the synthesizer driver by means of voice function calls. This can also be thought of as voice handler functions = sound or sequence player, but one could also think of it as "an intermediary routine that converts player playback data into voice function calls for the driver."

voice steal
Virtual voice with low priority that was once assigned to physical voice but was taken over by other virtual voice with higher priority.

The loudness of a sound.

wave table
Raw sound data compressed in ADPCM.

A sound effect that ranges from 0 (completely dry sound) to 127 (a completely wet sound).