2 tile system
ADD rendering mode
When you display lines or polygons using display equipment that has pixels (like TV), steps (notches) appear on diagonal and curved lines and polygon borders. Aliasing refers to these steps.
--> alpha value
A function that compares a pixel's alpha value with the set threshold value alpha and performs a conditional write. Used for drawing semi-transparent polygons and composing pixels.
alpha dither comparison
When the pixel alpha value is larger than a random dither value, the frame buffer is provisionally rewritten. This provides a way to attach alpha gradations to a surface and realize particle effects.
The fourth color element. It describes the opacity. The larger the alpha value, the more opaque the image. The value is not directly expressed, but used when mixing colors.
Diffuse, non-directional light in the environment. It determines the color of parts of the object that are not hit by light.
To create a moving image.
A rendering technique used to smooth lines and image edges by reducing the jagged edges (notches) sometimes seen in bitmap images.
The angle that defines the scope of the field of view. The same as the opening in a camera lens.
attribute interpolation pipe
--> alpha value
average filtering mode
bank control file buffer
Bilinear filtering mode.
The process of bilinearly interpolating the color variations in a texture so the dots do not look coarse when the texture is enlarged.
The two-dimensional linear interpolation provided in the vertical and horizontal directions.
blend color compare
The alpha value (threshold) used in the alpha compare process.
The RDP component used to mix the calculated pixels and framebuffer pixels. The blender (BL) is used in translucent polygon drawing process, the anti-aliasing process, the fog process, the dither process, and so on.
blender ADD mode
blender mux control bit
The data used to set the blender hardware. This data defines the blend expression. It is stored in the "othermode" parameter of the RDP.
Using the alpha value of a texture to determine the comparative mixture of the shading RGB value and the texture's RGB value.
bounding volume test
--> The test used for volume culling. The test checks to see if the bounding volume of an object is within the viewing volume. If it is completely outside the viewing volume, then display list items for that object are not executed to speed up the process.
A mode of the texture filter which balances the four texels that lie around the sampling point. It is most effective when the sampling point is placed in the center of four texels.
chromakey operation color
The process that sets a specific color (often blue) to be rendered as transparent and then synthesizes more than two images leaving out the parts that have the specific (blue) color.
--> color index
A technique for using the data at the edges of a texture when you specify outside the range of the texture.
The process that cuts off polygons or lines outside of the view in order to reduce the amount of data being processed during rendering. Although clipping takes a relatively long time to process, you can reduce the process time by changing the ratio between the clipping pyramid and screen, and then using clipping along with the faster process of scissoring.
clipping plane of camera
The three-dimensional area outside of which clipping occurs. In other words, objects sticking out of this area are clipped.
clipping pyramid box
Cloud(CLD) rendering mode
cloud surface mode
A color frame buffer that holds data for rendering.
color combiner mode
The means for blending color sources.
color image format
The mode in which palette information is held for every texel. Can be in 4-bit or 8-bit format.
color index (CI) texture
A texture with palette information. The size is 4-bit or 8-bit, and the color is fetched from the TLUT created in the latter 2 Kbytes of TMEM.
color index palette
The color index palette joins each color with its corresponding index (palette number).
color (RGBA) texture
A texture with 16-bit (RGBA/5551) or 32-bit (RGBA/8888) color information and alpha information.
The color composition.
color shift effect
contiguous texture block
A special pipeline mode for high-speed copying of images to the frame buffer. The RDP pipeline is all but bypassed, so filter settings are not necessary.
The amount of the pixel which is covered by a primitive. Every pixel is comprised of 16 subpixels. A dither mask like the checkered pattern shown below stores how many of the eight subpixels to cover. Used for anti-aliasing.
coverage value unit
A hardware unit used in the processing of data during anti-aliasing. It is the part that calculates the coverage value.
coverage value wrap
This situation arises when the sum of the existing coverage value in memory and the new pixel coverage value is greater than 1.0 (when the sum = 1, then the pixel is completely covered by a primitive.) The blender uses coverage value wrap information to execute anti-aliasing.
The process whereby unnecessary objects are culled (removed) from the display and from the graphic command pipeline (the display list).
cut out type
--> coverage value
The name for a line that is drawn on top of a rendered surface. This can be used to exaggerate an object comprised of polygons and to give it a more high-tech look.
decal render mode
The name for a surface attached on top of another rendered surface. Because the decal surface is only attached under the condition of blending when the coverage value is not wrapped, it is possible with decal writing to overwrite the original surface.
The name for a texture that is drawn on top of a rendered surface. This can be used for example to attach a pattern on an airplane wing.
decal Z algorithm
The algorithm for blending when the coverage value is not wrapped (when the value is 1.0) and for overwriting when it is wrapped.
The illumination from a point light source will attenuate (not so for parallel light rays). This coefficient is the factor by which the value of the light source is multiplied to determine the amount of attenuation.
The absolute value for the change in Z value in a pixel. Determined with Z buffering and used in various ways, depending on the blender mode setting.
--> Z buffer
depth buffer comparison
When the Z buffer is used for rendering, the depth value of every pixel is compared with the depth value stored in the Z buffer.
The depth value is determined by interpolating the Z values for the three vertices of the triangle containing the pixel. For rectangles and the like which do not have associated Z values, a single Z value is set for the entire primitive. The depth value is used for depth buffer comparisons.
Even if you use tri-linear MIP map interpolation, the texture becomes blurry when it approaches the maximum level of MIP mapping. The detail texture shows the detail texture design when MIP mapping is unsuitable.
Light that reflects in all directions with the same strength. The strength of reflecting light depends on the angle of incidence.
discontinuous rectangle command
The series of GBI commands needed for a drawing routine that provides all the necessary GBI commands each time without rerunning the routine. This makes the program simple, and ensures that the object will always be drawn the same way as quickly as possible.
display list format
display list stack
A technique used to enhance image quality by increasing the apparent number of colors beyond those that are actually used to display the image. Basically, a different but close color is specified by using neutral tints and placed here and there in the image. This feature is implemented in the N64 RCP graphics hardware as an implementation of the dither filter.
In the 16-bit format, each color is allocated only 5 bits. So, to enhance the color data, a dither filter is applied to give each color 8 bits by adding correction data in a special pattern in the lowest 3 bit positions. This softens the mach band effect.
The correction data pattern for the low 3 bits used by the dither filter.
A filter used to eliminate holes in anti-aliased pixels. (These holes arise when 1 pixel overlaps a number of boundary edges.) This filter is only enabled in anti-alias video mode. Also, it is not applicable to areas of full coverage.
A pair of image buffers. While the front image buffer is being drawn on the screen, rendering is performed in the back image buffer. When the drawing from one buffer is completed, the roles of the front and back buffers are switched.
dynamic lighting calculation
This value is used with objects that are rendered in anti-alias and decal render modes to determine whether the new pixel has the same surface as the pixel already in memory.
edge texel color
The color of the ambient light.
environment color register
A general-use color register in the color combiner that is set with the gDPSetEnvColor function. It is used to set the environment color and to set the color of the second highlight.
--> ambient light
Texture mapping that creates reflections of objects on a surface of an object. In other words, it creates realistic-looking reflections on a surface. You can execute easily in N64 development by using refection mapping.
--> view point
--> near/far plane
Used to paint in background color and the Z buffer. See fill mode
In this mode you can clear frame buffers at the rate of 64-bits per clock tick. This mode is used primarily to clear the color buffer and the Z buffer.
The pixel drawing rate per second.
To fill up an entire primitive with a single color.
To move the texture by switching the coordinates such that the s coordinate goes to the y direction and the t coordinate goes to the x direction.
flip book animation
Animation that looks like a flip-book comic.
To completely clean out. Here it refers to cleaning out the entire rendering pipeline.
The color of fog can be set with the gDPSEtFogColor function.
The process that makes objects in the distance look misty or foggy to simulate normal atmospheric effects. This provides realistic views of objects in the distance. Thanks to this, even if the quality of the far-away object falls, the whole quality of the image is not affected as much. It also can be used to soften the pop-in or pop-out effect.
fore (back) ground
fore (back) ground.
A mathematical expression used to represent complicated objects that would take an enormous amount of processing time to represent with polygons. A fractal is self-similar, meaning that its shape looks the same from up close as it does from far away.
The number of frames displayed per second ( FPS ). The maximum is 60 FPS in the NTSC system.
full screen rectangle
Though color intensity changes in a linear fashion, the response is normally nonlinear, since the output for any given input depends on the quality of the display device and the sensitivity of the human viewer. Gamma correction refers to the action taken to correct for this nonlinearity.
Graphic Binary Interface. The display list interface used to render graphics. Each command or single instruction in the display list is 64 bits in length. The GBI command string is called the display list.
GBI display list command
general-use color register
--> geometry primitive
geometric primitive command
The three-dimensional coordinate data or a graphic form created by it.
A mechanism that executes numeric value calculations using 3-dimensional coordinate information to create geometric objects.
The basic solid shapes that comprise a complexly varied image. Examples include points, lines and polygons (regions enclosed by lines).
global state pointer
global state register
The register that specifies the configuration and synchronization of the pipeline inside the RDP. It sets the cycle type, the synchronization between the pipeline and the attributes, and the information about the atomic primitive mode.
global state structure
A technique of shading to make curved surfaces look smooth by getting the color for each vertex and interpolating the vertex colors so vertices and edges to do stand out.
graphics binary interface
The commands executed by the RSP microcode in order to render graphics. Each command is 64-bits in length. The GBI command string is called the display list.
The pipeline that creates the image. It consists of rasterizer, the texture unit, texture filter, the color combiner, the blender, and memory interface inside of the RDP.
half pixel unit
hard edge key
hardware texture filter unit
The 9th bit created because the memory used by the RCP is 9-bit of RDRAM. The RDP's memory interface (MI) is the only thing that can directly read and write this bit. It is used, for example, to store the coverage value in the case of a 16-bit RGBA color image.
high frequency noise
The process used to express illumination from a light source. See also specular highlight.
highly packed texture mode
Intensity alpha mode. The mode having the I (intensity) and alpha (opacity) information at each texel. The 4-bit format is 3/1, the 8-bit format is 4/4 and the 16-bit format is 8/8-bit.
--> IA mode
intensity alpha (IA) texture
A texture with intensity information and alpha information. The size can be 4-bit(I=3bit, A=1bit) or 8-bit(I=4bit, A=4bit) or 16bit(I=8bit, A=8bit). Used when processing the transparency of a texture.
Graduation that uses intensity(i).
The mode having only the intensity information per texel. It has 4-bit and 8-bit formats.
= The transition difference (slope) of the intensity.
Very compact texture that only holds information regarding intensity, which is suitable when using less color.
Edges that two visible-displayed polygons share
internal vertex buffer
This mode assumes that surfaces penetrate and are penetrated by other surfaces (interpenetration). It is not as if you must use this mode to realize this kind of intersection between objects, but when this mode is set, the intersecting parts will be correctly anti-aliased.
interpolator (rewriter). Here, this is used to indicate the color converter in the color combiner.
The opposite of kinematics, this is a method for determining the angle of all the joints of a multi-jointed model, based on a specified end-point for the model. This approach can be used to animate humans and animals.
--> intensity texture
The intensity value. Luminance value.
lerp blender mode
level of detail
Illumination effects. The 3D object is illuminated in a way so you can see that it has depth. To use this, normal vectors must be set in the vertices. For light there is ambient light (uniform) and diffuse light (directional).
local vertex cache
The level of detail which is used to determine or change the levels of detail for objects that reside far away or near. Objects located far away can be rendered with much less detail by setting the level, which greatly improves the drawing rate.
low level macro
The lowest bit or byte in binary expression.
magic square order dither
The qualities and characteristics of an object.
The reflection and transparency characteristics of an object's material can be mathematically expressed by using the following data:
|Object's surface color
Mirror face factor
Plane roughness factor
|Object's internal color|
Mirror face density
Inside roughness factor
Matrices are used to describe an object's position and direction in three-dimensional space. Matrix calculations are used for coordinate transformations when rotating or moving an object in three-dimensional space and for projecting an object on the screen.
The stack used to implement complex matrix operations. There are two types of stacks: a 10-element modeling matrix stack to hold data relating to the object's position or direction and a 1-element viewing matrix stack to hold data relating to the viewing position or direction.
The existing pixel color in the frame buffer.
The collection of vertices and triangle faces which forms an object.
When a texture is reduced in size, a moire appears that lowers the quality of display. To get around this problem, a set of textures called MIP maps can be prepared at 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, etc. the height/width of the original texture pattern. Then, depending on the scale of enlargement of the texture for a given distance from the viewpoint, the two most appropriate textures from this set can be selected and bilinearly and trilinearly interpolated to eliminate the moire. There are several drawbacks to this process, however. For example, you must use 2 Cycle mode to perform MIP mapping. Also, you must store a number of texture patterns in the small texture memory.
MIP map level
--> MIP map
MIP map pyramid
MIP map texture
--> MIP map
A method for inverting a texture horizontally or vertically.
modeling coordinate position
A 4 x 4 matrix that transforms points, lines, polygons and raster positions from local coordinates to world coordinates.
model view matrix
A texture that has been modulated by blending texture color and shade color. Performed in the color combiner.
An animation technique used to transition between two or more shapes and images.
A method of animating by preparing tracks for the motion of the object and the camera, and then moving them along that track to create the animation.
The abbreviation of "Motion Picture Experts Group." The digital compression method for color animation.
multi color text
multiple graphics task
multi tile mode
multi tile texture
By using the maximum of eight texture tiles to display a texture, it's possible to MIP map or use detail textures while in a 2-cycle mode.
N64 font code
A technique that clips any object that lies closer than a near plane. There is microcode that prevents clipping under certain conditions.
The near plane is the plane of the viewing pyramid closest to the observer. The far plane is the farthest plane away from the observer.
--> viewing pyramid
non full screen rectangle
= The abbreviation of "Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline." A method used for expressing a curve or curved surface by using a high-level function.
Generally, the vector perpendicular to a plane or a line. In the N64, normal vectors can be specified for vertices to determine which light a vertex will be illuminated by.
The sampling theorem that says that if you perform the sampling at more than twice the maximum frequency of the input signal, you can reproduce the original signal accurately.
An object-coordinate model that is rendered as a collection of primitives.
--> alpha value
original complete information
original face texture
orthogonal projection matrix
A projection transformation matrix that does not follow the laws of perspective, but is just an orthogonal projection. It is a parallel field of view, so objects are projected with the same size, regardless of distance. In the N64, the calculations are made with the guOrtho() function.
--> silhouette edge
overlay surface mode
The level of complexity of texture color, shape etc.
When a texture tile is loaded, it is OK to have the pixel address of the square on a byte boundary, but if the row width of the tile is not on a 64-bit boundary, the hardware will automatically pad the rows in TMEM to be at a 64-bit boundary.
A method for rendering polygons in the direction from the distance toward near the viewpoint. This makes anti-aliasing work better.
painter's algorithm procedure
Effect that looks like it has been realized with a particle system.
particle fade out
A particle is a very small object. A particle system is a modeling technique that uses many of these particles. It is an ideal technique for expressing something that is comprised of many pieces gathered together based on some general law.
Texture for which the calculation of the coordinate values is perspective-corrected.
Correction done to boost the computational precision of the texture coordinate values.
perspective normalization factor
Projecting a figure in the plane of projection. In other words, showing a 3D object on a 2D screen.
perspective projection matrix
A projection transformation matrix that uses the laws of perspective, and not just orthogonal projection. The projection transformation makes objects in the foreground bigger and objects in the distance smaller. In the N64, the calculations are made with the guPerspective() function.
pipeline pixel color
--> yaw, roll
A single dot on the screen. Minimum unit needed for rendering an object.
The current pixel color. The manual differentiates between this and memory color, which is the pixel color existing in memory.
pixel element size
Sampling on the assumption that each texel of the source texture represents one pixel on the display screen. This is optimal when the texel size and the pixel size have a 1:1 relationship, but otherwise you cannot get a faithful map.
Three-dimensional objects are represented by combining the planes of polygons together.
pop-out and pop-in
Pop-out means that the object moves away and suddenly disappears from the screen. Pop-in means that the object moves in and suddenly appears on the screen.
The basic elements (dots, lines, and polygons) to be used to draw 3D objects.
The color of each primitive itself.
primitive color register
A general-use register in the color combiner that is set with the gDPSetPrimColor function. This register is used for primitive color settings, and for setting the color of the first highlight and the LOD fraction.
A non-perspective projection transformation performed without reduction to look like a regular engineering drawing.
random alpha source
Refers to use of a random number for the threshold value alpha in an alpha compare. This is called an alpha dither comparison, and it is used for a particle effect.
A scan line. The horizontal line on the display screen (TV).
An image displayed by using the raster scan line
To use each vertex and color of a primitive to create pixels inside the primitive. Each pixel has attributes such as coordinates, depth value, color value, LOD level, cover value, and so on that are used in calculations later.
RDP display list
--> display list
The rendering functionality blocks are structured in a pipeline in the RDP of the N64 RCP.
A quadrilateral whose alternate edges are parallel to each other in object coordinates.
--> specular highlight
A texture mapping method that dynamically calculates the texture coordinate that reflects into the position by using the normal vector of the reflection mapping object. Used to show the surroundings reflecting on the object's surface.
The rectangle that defines the area in which the reject process is performed.
--> reject process
A process that controls whether triangles are to be drawn in a certain fixed area around the outside the screen. If all three vertices of a triangle are inside this area, the triangle is drawn. But if even one vertex is not inside this area, then no part of the triangle is drawn. This process is less intensive than clipping.
To convert a specified primitive in the object coordinate into image data for the frame buffer.
The mode having the RGB (red, green, blue) and alpha information at each texel. The 16-bit format is 5/5/5/1 and the 32-bit format is 8/8/8/8-bit.
--> pitch, yaw
RSP geometry engine
scale up factor
The setting in the VI (video interface) that is the scaling factor for enlarging or reducing images. You can specify from 0.25 through 1.0 for the X direction and from 0.05 through 1.0 for the Y direction.
scaling modeling matrix
A process that cuts off parts 2-dimensionally that lie outside the drawing rectangle. RDP processes this in N64.
--> scissoring box
The area in which scissoring is performed.
--> scissoring box
sequence bank file
The process of color interpolation inside polygons being rasterized and between vertices of a line. Examples include flat shading and Gouraud shading.
Sharp texture is used under the same circumstances as Detail texture. When approaching the maximum level of MIP mapping, a Sharp texture is artificially created from the pair of the maximum level texture and the next level texture.
s index and t index
The part of the polygon edge that is shared with the background.
smooth flip book animation
source texture array
source texture image
A term for length.
A line buffer in the RDP used to process a stack of information at one time to achieve high speed random access while RDRAM cannot achieve high speed random access.
The bright spot that appears when light reflects off a shiny object. Because it is implemented by using a texture, you cannot use a specular highlight on a texture-mapped object.
A rectangle image that is drawn by using a texture. In N64, texture is used to draw a sprite.
standard bearer matrix order dither
s, t coordinate
A pixel's texture coordinate values. The "s" coordinate defines the horizontal component of the texture while the "t" coordinate defines the vertical component.
stipple transparency process
A transparency process performed at the level of individual pixels.
A piece (1/16) of a pixel obtained when you split one pixel into 16 (4 by 4) sub-pixels. Sub-pixels are used to compute a coverage value.
sub pixel scan line
sub surface mode
The surface of a polygon
A point(pixel) within a texture map.
texel space coordinate system
--> texture map
--> s, t coordinate
Using a texture to transfer a pattern (decalcomania).
texture edge mode
texture image are
texture lookup table
Bitmapped pictures or patterns placed onto the surface of polygon. It may be simply called a texture.
The process of placing a texture onto the surface of a polygon.
The 4 Kbyte special on-chip memory only for texture built into the RDP. Because it's separated into 4 simultaneously accessible banks, it can output four texels with one clock.
texture perspective correction
texture rectangle primitive
The texture rectangle (sprite) drawn to the screen coordinates.
texture tile descriptor
TMEM can store a maximum of eight texture tile descriptors that hold the following information for each tile: the texture size, flags of wrap/clamp/mirror, the format, the TMEM address, and so on.
texture tile number
The color index palette that holds the color information corresponding to each palette number that is created in the last 2 Kbytes of TMEM when you use the color index (CI) mode.
--> texture memory
transformation modeling matrix
transparent decal surface mode
transparent surface mode
triangle list architecture
triangle list pointer
--> trilinear interpolation
The three-dimensional linear interpolation provided to the vertical, horizontal, and depth directions.
trilinear MIP mapping
true color texture
turbo display list
turbo triangle list
A point where two or more lines intersect in 3D space.
The alpha value (opacity value) specified by the vertex.
Cache that holds the vertex data after the coordinate transformation operation. There are 16 of those.
vertex list pointer
video display logic
The VI (video interface).
The definition of the three-dimensional area that shows the view (inside the screen).
The region of the screen ultimately occupied by the image when it is displayed. To give an example with a camera, it is the size of the developed picture.
A technique that checks to see which parts of a complex object are completely off-screen. Then it culls (removes) all operations in the display list that deal with these off-screen objects.
A shape comprised solely of the outlines of an object.
world coordinate system
A technique that creates large textures by repeatedly displaying a small texture over and over. If you use wrap technique, the texture size must be an exponent of 2.
--> pitch, roll
The digital video signal standard consisting of the intensity (Y) and the color difference (UV) components. Because human eyes are not so sensitive to the color component, it decreases the sampling of the color component and provides effective compression. For example, it is used in MPEG animation.
The conversion from YUV into RGB provided by the texture filter and the color combiner.
To force the coverage value to be 1.0 so the VI does not perform anti-aliasing.
A buffer or its algorithm that holds depth values used to display the closest polygon from a given view point A technique that removes shaded area.
One of the hardware units in the anti-aliasing process. It calculates an 18-bit Z value for each pixel of a primitive.
Z sub pixel correction