Chapter 11 - RSP Graphics Programming

This document describes the graphics state machine of the RCP, with a particular focus on the RSP (please see Section 3.3 "RSP: Reality Signal Processor".)

The RSP is an R4000-like CPU with an 8-element vector unit, featuring a small instruction memory, IMEM (4K bytes or 1K instructions) and small data memory, DMEM (4K bytes). Software (microcode) running on this processor implements a large portion of the geometry display pipeline.

In addition, the RSP provides visibility for all of the RCP functionality, through a variety of software conventions and hardware exposure. All "display lists" for the RCP graphics features must pass through the RSP. There are several important features which require the application programmer to be consciously aware of the distinctions between the RSP and the RDP (and program each of them separately), but for the most part, the RSP serves as the single interface between the application program and the graphics pipeline:

Figure 11-1 Nintendo 64 Graphics Pipeline
[Figure 11-1]

11.1 RSP Overview
11.1.1 Display List Format
11.1.2 Segmented Memory and the RSP Memory Map
11.1.3 Interaction Between the RSP and N64 CPU Memory Caching
11.2 Display List Processing
11.2.1 Connecting Display Lists
11.2.2 Branching Display Lists
11.2.3 Ending Display Lists
11.2.4 A Few Words About Optimal Display Lists
11.3 Matrix State
11.3.1 Insert a Matrix
11.3.2 Pop a Matrix
11.3.3 Perspective Normalization
11.3.4 Note on Coordinate Systems and Big Numbers
11.3.5 A Few Words About Matrix Precision
11.4 Vertex State
11.5 Texture State
11.6 Clipping and Culling
11.6.1 ClipRatio
11.6.2 Near Clipping and gspF3DNoN microcode
11.6.3 Back-Face Polygon Culling
11.6.4 Volume Culling
11.7 Vertex Lighting State
11.7.1 RSP Microcode
11.7.2 Normal Vector Normalization
11.7.3 Ambient and Directional Lighting Important Note on Matrix Manipulation Light Structure Definition Note on Light Direction Lighting State Set Up Object Rendering Note on Material Properties
11.7.4 Specular Highlights Specular Highlight Structure Definition Texture Loading Texture Coordinate Transformations Highlight Position Description Lighting State Set Up Object Rendering
11.7.5 Reflection Mapping Structure Definition Texture Loading Texture Coordinate Transformations Compatibility with Specular Highlighting Environment Mapping
11.8 Vertex Fog State
11.9 Primitives
11.9.1 Triangles
11.9.2 Lines
11.9.3 Rectangles
11.10 Controlling the RDP State